Website sources can be broken into two distinct types: those that are an entire website and those that only encompass a page on a website.
For an entire website, the citation should start with the author's name, editor, or compiler name (if available), then title of the site. This should be followed by organizational information (if pertinent), date of site creation (if available), DOI (URL or permalink if DOI unavailable), and date of access (if applicable). There is a lot of variation in on sources, so include what you can.
Author. Title. Organization, Creation Date, DOI. Access Date.
SPSCC. South Puget Sound Community College, spscc.edu. Accessed 17 May 2021.
Individual pages on a website are cited slightly differently. Start with the author name (if available), then include the page title, followed by the website title. The rest should be identical to the full website citation.
Author. "Page Title." Website Title, Creation Date, DOI. Access Date.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Climate." NOAA, noaa.gov/climate. Accessed 26 Apr. 2021.
If it is a course or departmental website, the instructor, course name, department name, and school name should be included (as appropriate).
Instructor. Course or Department Title. School, Creation Date, DOI. Access Date.
Master of Environmental Studies. Evergreen College, evergreen.edu/mes/program. Accessed 17 May 2021.
Emails are an important part of modern communication. Increasingly emails are finding their way into archives, much like letters did and still do. They may consist of general communication or be part of a distance interview.
To cite an email, start with the sender's name. Follow it with the subject line in quotations and "Received by" the recipient's name. Conclude with the date sent.
Sender. "Subject Line." Received by Recipient, Date Sent.
Crowley, Aaron. "Tuesday Next." Received by Clara Lareau, 26 Apr. 2021.
Social Media represents a significant part of modern human interaction, both personally and as organizations. It follows, then, that posts will be used as sources and will need to be cited. It's impossible to create a comprehensive list in such a changeable medium, so below are citation instructions for a few of the more commonly used social media platforms. Other platforms will use a similar format.
Twitter Handle. "Entire Tweet." Twitter, Creation Date, Creation Time, URL.
@POTUS. “We have a chance, with the investments I’m proposing, to increase the size of our economy by $4.5 trillion over the next decade and win the competition for the future.” Twitter, 3 Jun. 2021, 12:55 p.m., https://twitter.com/POTUS/status/1400541696572678153.
Author. Description of Post. Facebook, Day Month Year of Post, Time of Post, URL. Accessed Date.
National Women’s History Museum. International Jazz Day biography of Hazel Scott. Facebook, 30 Apr. 2021, 7:01 a.m., https://www.facebook.com/womenshistory/posts/10158341077142252?__tn__=-R. Accessed 4 Jun. 2021.
The internet is an ever evolving, intensely interactive place, leading to the creation of new kinds of sources to cite. Below are at least the most likely source types you will need to cite. If you use a source that isn't listed here, just go by the generally website rules for citing as well as you can. The basic format is author, title, name of site or publisher, posting date, creation or access date, and URL. This varies some by source type and information availability.
Author. "Posting Title." Name of Site, Organization, Posting Date, URL. Access Date.
Schneider, K. G. "(Dis)Association." Free Range Librarian, 27 May 2019, http://freerangelibrarian.com. Accessed 4 Jun. 2021.
User Name. Comment on "Title." Publisher, Creation Date, Creation Time, URL.
Jesse Contreras. Comment on "Ancient Computer NOVA HD." Universe TV, 23 Sep. 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O5_29GTY-ls.
"Title of Entry." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Day Month Year entry last modified, Time entry last modified, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.
"Quebec Sovereignty Movement." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Jun. 2021, 10:09 a.m., https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_sovereignty_movement.
Scholarly articles are articles that are written by experts in the field, peer reviewed by other experts in the same field, and published in a field specific academic journal.
To cite one of these articles, start with the author and title of article as you normally would. Then, put the title of the journal in italics. Include the volume number ("vol.") and issue number ("no.") when possible, separated by commas. Finally, add the year and page numbers.
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, Pages.
Sardon, Haritz, and Andrew P Dove. "Plastics Recycling with a Difference." Science, vol. 360, no. 6387, 2018, pp. 380–81.
To cite one of these articles, start with the author and title of article as you normally would. Then, put the title of the journal in italics. Include the volume number ("vol.") and issue number ("no.") when possible, separated by commas. Finally, add the year and page numbers.Lastly, include the URL and the date accessed.
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, Pages, URL. Accessed Date.
Reid, Chris R., Tanya Latty, Audrey Dussutour, and Madeleine Beekman. "Slime mold uses an externalized spatial ‘memory’ to navigate in complex environments." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences – PNAS, vol. 109, no. 43, 2012, pp. 17490-17494, https://www.pnas.org/content/109/43/17490. Accessed 24 May 2021.
To cite one of these articles, start with the author and title of article as you normally would. Then, put the title of the journal in italics. Include the volume number ("vol.") and issue number ("no.") when possible, separated by commas. Finally, add the year and page numbers. Lastly, include the Database name, DOI or URL, and the date accessed.
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, Pages, Database, DOI. Accessed Date.
Buckley, Reuben M., et al. "A New Domestic Cat Genome Assembly Based on Long Sequence Reads Empowers Feline Genomic Medicine and Identifies a Novel Gene for Dwarfism." PLoS Genetics, vol. 16, no. 10, 2019, pp. 1-28, EBSCOhost, doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1008926. Accessed 24 May 2021.
Magazines are less academically rigorous than scholarly journals, but can be useful for certain topics and audiences.
To cite a magazine article, start by listing the article's author, putting the title of the article in quotations marks, and italicizing the periodical title. Follow with the date of publication. Remember to abbreviate the month. Add the pages at the end.
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, Pages.
Kiffel-Alcheh, Jamie. “The Secret Lives Of Orcas.” National Geographic Kids, June 2018, pp. 12–17.
For an online publication, include the URL and date accessed.
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages, URL, Date Accessed.
If the article is found in a database, include the database name in italics between the pages and the URL or DOI.
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages, Database, URL or DOI, Date Accessed.
Newspapers contain timely news articles that are published on a regular basis, usually daily.
To cite a newspaper article, start with the author, then article title, publication, date, and page(s). The date should include the day, month, and year.
Author. "Article Title". Publication, Date, Page(s).
Cappucci, Matthew. “Powerful Santa Ana Wind Event Kindles January Wildfires in California.” The Washington Post, 20 Jan. 2021, p.E6.
If the newspaper is not well known, include the city of origin in brackets.
Author. "Article Title." Publication [Location], Date, Page(s).
Citing editorials is the same as regular articles, but with the addition of the word "editorial" after the article title.
Author. "Article Title." Editorial. Publication, Date, Page.
To cite reviews, list the author of the review and then the title (if there is one). Then add "Review of" and the title of the media that is being reviewed, followed by the original creator. From there it is the standard newspaper article format.
Review Author. "Title of Review." Review of Reviewed Media Title, by Creator. Publication, Date, Page.
Books are a great many things but, at their core, they are long form published works dedicated to a particular topic or story.
The basic format for citing a book is author, then title, then city of publication (if applicable), publisher, and lastly date published. The city of publication should only be included if the book was published before 1900, or if the publisher has offices in more than one country or is unknown in North America.
Author(s). Book Title. City of Publication, Publisher, Date Published.
Kulling, Monica, and Valerio Fabbretti. Eliza Hamilton Founding Mother. Random House, 2018
If the book is authored by an organization or corporation, the name of the organization should be used.
Organization. Book Title. City of Publication, Publisher, Date Published.
Library of Classic Poets. Edna st. Vincent Millay: Selected Poems. Gramercy Books, 2006
If the author and publisher are the same or if there is no author given, start the citation with the book title instead.
Book Title. Publisher, Date Published.
The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Fossils. National Audubon Society, 1982.
An Anthology is a collection of works contained within one book. You may use one essay or story from an anthology as a source or you may use the entire thing.
To cite a single work from a collection, list the author's name, the title of the work, title of the collection, "edited by" editor, publisher, year of publication, and pages of the entry.
Author(s). "Title of work." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s). Publisher, Year, Pages of Entry.
Tilton,Lois. "A Just and Lasting Peace." The Year's Best Science Fiction Ninth Edition edited by Gardner Dozois. St. Martin's Press, 1992, pp. 79-89
For an entire anthology, include the editor's name(s), then "editor", the title of the collection, the publisher, and the year.
Editor(s), editor(s). Title of Collection, Publisher, Year.
Grehan, John, editor. Assassinations Anthology : Plots and Murders That Would Have Changed the Course of WW2. Frontline Books, 2017.
Reference books are collections of short, factual entries of a consistent type. They are most often used for background information on an unfamiliar topic. This includes such resources as encyclopedias, dictionaries, and biographical websites.
To cite entries in reference books, start with the entry name, then include the reference source title and edition. Lastly list the publication year. The volume and page number are not needed if the source is alphabetized (which they almost all are). Online reference books should include the date of the most recent modification and the URL.
"Entry." Reference Source Title, edition. Publication Year.
"Taxidermy." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2021
E-books are just like their physical counterpart except that they are available digitally.
The citations for e-books are quite similar to those of physical books, just with the addition of the word "e-book" before the publisher information.
Author(s). Book Title. E-book, Publisher, Year Published.
Randall, Henry. Ocelots. E-book, PowerKids Press, 2011.
Videos are informal, usually short audio visual presentations. They are a very popular online medium. While many are strictly for entertainment, you may find yourself citing an informative video in your paper.
Creator. "Title." Organization, uploaded Creation Date, URL.
Gellis, Eliza. "MLA Style In-Text Citations." Purdue Online Writing Lab, uploaded 2016, https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide.
Creator. "Title." YouTube, uploaded by Uploader, Creation Date, URL.
"The Time the Mediterranean Sea Disappeared." YouTube, uploaded by PBS Eons, 9 Jan. 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HooZ84rpovQ.
Creator. "Title." TED: Ideas Worth Spreading, Creation Date, URL.
Gell-Mann, Murray. “The Ancestor of Language.” TED: Ideas Worth Spreading, Mar. 2007, https://www.ted.com/talks/murray_gell_mann_the_ancestor_of_language?referrer=playlist-talks_on_ancient_languages#t-133343.
Films are long form, formal audio visual media released by a production company.
For movies, start with the title, followed by the director, studio, and release year. Notable performers can be included after the director name if pertinent.
Title. Directed by Director. Studio. Release Year.
The Grand Budapest Hotel. Directed by Wes Anderson. Fox Searchlight Pictures. 2014.
Recorded films are cited much the same as the basic format: start with the title, director, and replace the studio with the distributer. The date of distribution will take the place of the release year.
Title. Directed by Director. Distributer, Date of Distribution.
Broadcast film is similar as well except that the collection title will just be the title and the network name will be given instead of the studio. The city it was viewed in and the date it was viewed must also be included.
Title. Network, City, Date Viewed.
Streaming films are also much the same with the addition of the streaming service and URL.
Title. Directed by Director. Studio. Release Year. Streaming Service. URL. Access Date.
TV shows can be viewed in a variety of ways and citation instructions reflect that.
TV Shows are a bit more complicated. Recorded episodes are cited much like movies: start with the episode title, then collection title (show title if no differentiating collection title), studio, and date of distribution.
"Episode." Collection Title. Studio, Date of Distribution.
Broadcast TV episodes is similar as well except that the collection title will just be the show title and the network name will be given instead of the studio. The city it was viewed in must also be included.
"Episode." Show Title. Network, City, Date Viewed.
Streaming shows are also much the same with the addition of the streaming service and URL.
"Episode." Show Title. Network, Date Aired. Streaming Service. URL.
To cite the entire series, list the creator(s), show title, studio, and year.
Creator(s). Show Title. Studio. Date.
Podcasts are digitally born audio media. They are often available in series that revolve around a common topic.
Author, narrator. "Episode Title." Podcast Name, Season, Episode, Publisher, Date, URL.
Though it is not very common, you may need to reference a song or album.
For songs, start with the artist's name and the song title, followed by the album name, record label, and year created. If listened to online, a URL should be included. If it was heard on a streaming service, it should be identified before the URL.
Artist. "Song." Album. Record Label. Date.
A song listened to online has the same citation as the song basic, except with the URL added to the end.
Artist. "Song." Album. Record Label. Date. URL.
A song listened to through a streaming service is again the same as song basic, but with the streaming service and URL added.
Artist. "Song." Album. Record Label. Date. Streaming Service. URL.
Sometimes you may need to cite a full album - this is identical to citing a song except with the song title left out.
Artist. Album. Record Label. Date.
Photographs can be viewed physically or digitally and can be personally taken or published. Metadata is often patchy, so the main guideline is to just include what you can.
The most likely place that you might find a photograph is online. It may be on a museum website but could be found anywhere online.
Photographer. Photograph Title. Year Created. Museum/Collection Name, City. Website Name. Medium. Date accessed.
Published photographs include all photos found in a larger work - this includes books, magazines, or journals.
Photographer. Photograph Title. Year Created. Museum/Collection Name, City. Publication Name. By Author. Publication Place: Publisher, Publication Date. Pages.
You may get the opportunity to view originals of photographs that you cite in your paper. Art photography can be found in museums and art collections, while other photographs are included in archives or publicly exhibited.
Photographer. Photograph Title. Year Created. Medium. Museum/Collection/Archive Name, City.
The easiest photograph to cite is one that you've personally taken.
Photographer. “Photograph Title/Description.” Year Created. Digital File Type.
Artwork can be viewed in person, in a photograph, or on a website. Each type of access has its own citation style.
For artwork seen in person, you just need to include the artist, title of the artwork, date created, institution housing it, and the location.
Artist. Title of Artwork. Date, Institution, Location.
A photograph of the artwork includes all the same information but follows it with the publication it's found in and its author, the publisher and page.
Artist. Title of Artwork. Date, Institution, Location. Publication, Author, Publisher, Page.
For a digital representation of an artwork, start with the artist, title of artwork, and date created. Follow this with the website name, publisher (if different), and URL.
Artist. Title of Artwork. Date. Website Name, URL.
Van Gogh, Vincent. Avenue in a Park. 1888. Van Gogh Museum, vangoghmuseum.nl.
Charts, tables, and other figures are cited where they appear in text, not on the works cited page. For information on how to cite them, click on the In Text Citations tab.
There are two types of interviews that you may cite - those personally conducted and those that are conducted by others.
Begin with the name of the person interviewed. For a personally conducted interview, you then add the words "personal interview" and the date.
Interviewee. Personal Interview. Date.
Jill Tartari. Personal Interview. 8 Feb. 2021.
If you are citing an interview conducted by someone else, you still start with the interviewee's name, but then need to add either the title of the interview or "interview with" the interviewer. Next comes the publication. Include volume, issue, date, and page numbers as applicable.
Interviewee. Interview with Interviewer. Publication, Volume, Issue, Date, Pages.
Interviewee. " Article Title." Publication, Volume, Issue, Date, Pages.
Sagan, Carl. "A slayer of dragons: interview with Carl Sagan." Psychology Today, vol.29, no. 1, 1996, p.30.
If it is part of a book, keep the first part the same but include the book name as the publication, followed by the author or editor's name(s) and the year of publication.
Interviewee. "Interview Title." Book Title, by Author(s), Year.
Bacchus, Josephine. "JOSEPHINE BACCHUS Ex-Slave, 75-80 Years." Slave Narratives Vol. XIV. South Carolina, Part 1 A Folk History of Slavery in the United States From Interviews with Former Slaves, original interview by Annie Ruth Davis, collected by Project Guttenburg, 26 Jul. 2006.
Digitally published interviews should be cited the same as one found in print except that it should also include a URL at the end.
Interviewee. Interview with Interviewer. Website, Date. URL.
Interviewee. " Article Title." Publication, Volume, Issue, Date, Pages.
Steinem, Gloria. "Feminist Gloria Steinem on Finding Herself Free of the 'Demands of Gender'." NPR.org, 25 Sep. 2020. https://www.npr.org/2020/09/25/916870127/feminist-gloria-steinem-on-finding-herself-free-of-the-demands-of-gender..
Broadcast interviews are cited much like those otherwise published. Start with the name of the person interviewed, then the title of the interview. If there is no title, simply write the Interviewee interviewed by Interviewer. Follow that with the program that featured it, the interviewer, and the year.
Interviewee. “Interview Title.” Show, By Interviewer, Year.
Attenborough, David. “Sir David Attenborough on 60 Minutes.” 60 Minutes, By Anderson Cooper, 2021.
Conferences are a vital part of professional development in many fields. You may need to cite a presentation, panel discussion or Q&A, or published conference proceedings.
For a presentation, start with the speaker's name, and then include the name of the presentation (if applicable). Then add the title of the conference, the organization, and the venue name and location. End with a descriptor of what it is (Keynote Address, Reading, Lecture, etc).
Speaker. "Presentation Title." Conference Name, Organization, Date, Venue, Location. Descriptor.
Citing a discussion or Q&A is similar - use the panelist or moderator names as the speaker, specifying if they are officially recognized as such. Next is the title of the discussion or, if there isn't one, a description of the type of discussion (panel discussion, Q&A). Add the title of the event, date, venue, and location as you would for a regular presentation.
Discussion Leaders. Discussion type. Conference Name, Date, Venue, Location.
Published conference proceedings, on the other hand, are treated more like anthologies. Start with the editor's name, followed by the word "editor". Conference title, date, and location follow, then publisher and date of publication.
Editor(s), editor. Conference Title, Date, Location, Publisher, Publication Date.
To cite a specific presentation within published proceedings, start with the presenter's name and the name of the presentation. Next include the conference name, including the date and location, and then "edited by" the editor's name. Finish it out with the publisher and date of publication.
Speaker. "Presentation Title." Conference Title with Date and Location, edited by Editor(s), Publisher, Publication Date.